Sonar waves are bent by temperature layers reducing their range and efficiency. If we were on exercises we would regularly test water temperatures at different depths by using a bathythermograph which was attached to a steel wire and dragged along by the ship. Temperatures and depth were
marked on smoked glass and interpreted in the sonar control room to calculate what was happening beneath the waves.

A bathythermograph with a drawing of the glass slide and the reader


A vintage bathythermograph

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